Thin films of tin selenide (SnSe) were deposited on sodalime glass substrates, which were held at different temperatures in the range of 350-550 K, from the pulverized compound material using thermal evaporation method. The effect of substrate temperature (Ts) on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the films were investigated using x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission measurements, and Hall-effect characterization techniques. The temperature dependence of the resistance of the films was also studied in the temperature range of 80-330 K. The XRD spectra and the SEM image analyses suggest that the polycrystalline thin films having uniform distribution of grains along the (111) diffraction plane was obtained at all Ts. With the increase of Ts the intensity of the diffraction peaks increased and well-resolved peaks at 550 K, substrate temperature, were obtained. The analysis of the data of the optical transmission spectra suggests that the films had energy band gap in the range of 1.38 1.18 eV. Hall-effect measurements revealed the resistivity of films in the range 112-20 Ωcm for films deposited at different Ts. The activation energy for films deposited at different Ts was in the range of 0.14 eV-0.28 eV as derived from the analysis of the data of low-temperature resistivity measurements.
N. Kumar, V. Sharma, N. Padha, N.M. Shah, M.S. Desai, C.J. Panchal, I.Yu. Protsenko., Influence of the substrate temperature on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of tin selenide thin films deposited by thermal evaporation method
Cryst. Res. Technol. 45, №1, 53-58 (2010)